1Kapranov, S
1A. Yu. Krymskyi Institute of Oriental Studies, NAS of Ukraine. 4, Hrushevskoho Str., Kyiv, 01001, Ukraine
Kitaêznavčì doslìdžennâ 2018, 2:5-14
https://doi.org/10.15407/chinesest2018.02.005
Section: History, Philosophy, Science and Culture of China
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 

The article is devoted to the study of the problem of freedom in the philosophy of Zhuangzi. The main approaches to the issue by Chinese scholars and thinkers and by Wes-tern researchers are considered. A group of hieroglyphic binoms, denoting various aspects of the concept of “freedom”, is singled out. These are 在宥 zài yòu, 自然 zì rán, 逍遙 xiāo yáo, 天放 tiān fàng. The cases of their use in the text are analyzed. On the basis of the ana-lysis, it is shown that the central place among them belongs to the zì rán, which expresses the category of truth immanently inherent in a human being (or a “thing”-wù), appearing as its nature. Freedom in the sense of Zhuangzi is the self-deployment of this truth or nature in the spontaneous “non-activity”. It appears as xiāo yáo – an unconstrained movement in an infinite space, accompanied by a sense of joy and happiness. The state of archetypal antiquity, when everything enjoyed this freedom, is the “heavenly liberation” tiān fàng. And zài yòu means freedom seen from the standpoint of the ruler, freedom as his gift to the Celestial Empire and at the same time as the highest act of power over it.

 

Keywords: Chinese philosophy, freedom, Taoism, the history of philosophy, Zhuangzi

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