1Koshovyi, S
1Ph.D. (World history), Chief consultant, Division on Relations with National Parliaments, Inter-parliamentary Relations Department of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; Chairman of the board of Ukrainian Association of Sinologists koshovyy_serhiy@ukr.net
Kitaêznavčì doslìdžennâ 2018, 2:99-126
https://doi.org/10.15407/chinesest2018.02.099
Section: Political, social and Economic development of China
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 

The article examines the foreign policy of the Chinese state in the Polar region, with a special emphasis on the period after the release of the White Paper on the Arctic Policy of China. The main directions, forms and methods of policy concerning the mentioned region at both bilateral and multilateral level are considered. The origins, scales and features of the Arctic vector of the Chinese foreign policy course are analyzed. It is proved that among the priority areas of interest: 1) climate change in the Arctic and its global impact; 2) Arctic (mi-neral, fish, energy) resources; 3) shipping (new trade routes), economic cooperation and tou-rism; 4) realization of Chinese scientific achievements in practice (global satellite navigation system “Beidou”, space research, methods of weather forecasting); 5) participation in the development of Arctic policy and its legislative framework. It is evaluated that the current fo-reign policy of the People’s Republic of China, as well as its Arctic element is a skillful tool for combining “soft” and “hard” powers to defend the vital national interests of China. It has been considered that since the publication of the White Paper on the Arctic Policy of China, the Chinese state is increasingly asserting itself as an Arctic stakeholder, and not just an ordinary observer in the Arctic Council. At the same time, it is predicted that the activity and Chinese presence in the Arctic in the near future will continue to grow steadily, and the Arctic vector of foreign policy of the China will only increase indifferent dimensions.

Keywords: Antarctica, Arctic, Arctic stakeholder, Arctic Сouncil, bilateral and multilateral cooperation, China, Chinese Foreign Policy, Global Governance, Polar Silk Road Initiative, the Northern Sea Route, “Polar Great Power” concept

Full text (PDF)

References: 
  1. China, Finland to enhance Arctic research cooperation, Xinhua (2018), available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-04/18/c_137120011.htm (accessed 24 October 2018).
  2. Liu Huirong, Sun Kai, Dong Yue “Beiji diqu fazhan baogao” (2017), Beijing, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
  3. Brady Anne-Marie (2018), China as a Polar Great Power, Cambridge University Press.
  4. China’s Arctic Policy (2018), available at: http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2018/01/26/content_28147602666... (accessed 4 October 2018).
  5. Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration (CHINARE), available at: http://www.chinare.gov.cn/ (accessed 29 October 2018).
  6. Combal-Weiss Ariane (2018), China’s Arctic Policy, available at: http://www.eu-asiacentre.eu/pub_details.php?pub_id=237 (accessed 14 October 2018).
  7. Eyssen Robert (2002), HSK Komet. Kaperfahrt auf allen Meeren, Koehler Verlagsgesellschaft Hamburg.
  8. Future Arctic Shipping sea route connecting Europe and Asia (2018), Prof. Natsuhiko Otsuka, available at: https://arcticeconomiccouncil.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Otsuka.pdf (accessed 31 October 2018).
  9. Grieger G. (2018), “China’s Arctic policy: How China aligns rights and inte-rests”, European Parliament Think Tank, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EPRS_BRI(2018)620231 (accessed 25 October 2018).
  10. “Guojia haiyangju xuexi guanche Xi Jinping haiyang qiangguo sixiang jishi”, Zhongguo haiyang bao (2017), available at: http://www.soa.gov.cn/xw/hyyw_90/ 201710/t20171018_58385.html (accessed 19 October 2018).
  11. Humpert Malte (2013), “The Future of Arctic Shipping: A New Silk Road for China” The Arctic Institute: Centre for Circumpolar Security Studies, available at: https://issuu.com/thearcticinstitute/docs/the_future_of_arctic_shipping_... (accessed 15 October 2018).
  12. Humpert Malte (2018), “China Looks to the Arctic” China US Focus, available at: https://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/china-capitalizes-on-arctic-... (accessed 01 October 2018).
  13. Jidi zhi sheng (2014), available at: https://www.polar.org.cn/ueditor_uploads_files/c811b7e7-7318-4d34-9b9e-6... (accessed 22 October 2018).
  14. Kiruna Declaration (2013), On the occasion of the Eighth Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council, available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/ 11374/93 (accessed 24 October 2018).
  15. Lackenbauer W., Lajeunesse А., Manicom J. and Lasserre F. (2018), “China’s Arctic Ambitions and What They Mean for Canada”, University of Calgary Press.
  16. Li Zhenfu (2009), “Beiji hangxian de Zhongguo zhanlüe fenxi”, Zhongguo ruan kexue, No1, ye 1–7.
  17. Liu Jin (2018), “China als Baumeister in der Arktis: Zum Weißbuch der chinesischen Arktispolitik”, WeltTrends: Das außenpolitische Journal, Nr. 140, pp. 45–50.
  18. Liu Jin (2018), “Zhongguo zai beiji de wu xiang guanjian zhengce zhuzhang”, Shijie jingji luntan wangzhan, available at: http://www.ciis.org.cn/chinese/2018-08/17/content_40465193.htm; https://cn.weforum.org/agenda/2018/08/50b40f7e-446f-4933-81a6-de4fe0ced85c/ (accessed 02 October 2018).
  19. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Record low extent in the Chukchi Sea (2017) available at: http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2017/12/record-low-extent-in-the-chukc... / (accessed 30 October 2018).
  20. Nong Hong (2018), “China’s Interests in the Arctic: Opportunities and Challenges. Examining the implications of China’s Arctic policy white paper”, Institute for China America Studies.
  21. Raspotnik Andreas (2018), The European Union and the Geopolitics of the Arctic. – Edward Elgar.
  22. Sandmark Ulf (2018), “China Offers New Silk Road To Northern Europe Through the Arctic Back Door”, EIR, Vol. 45, No5, available at: https://larouchepub.com/eiw/public/2018/eirv45n05-20180202/28-33_4505.pdf (accessed 12 October 2018).
  23. Seafood from a changing Arctic (2017), Max Troell, Arne Eide, John Isaksen, Øystein Hermansen, Anne-Sophie Crépin, National Center for Biotechnology Information, available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673870/ (accessed 31 October 2018).
  24. Shan Jie (2018), “Chinese seeking Arctic adventures boosting Russian tourism industry”, Global times, available at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1085074.shtml (accessed 23 October 2018).
  25. Sørensen Camilla T. N. (2018), “China as an Arctic Great Power Potential Implications for Greenland and the Danish Realm”, available at: http://www.fak.dk/publikationer/Pages/China%20as%20an%20Arctic%20Great%2... (accessed 22 October 2018).
  26. Stephen Kathrin (2018), “Kooperation oder Konfrontation in der Arktis?”, WeltTrends: Das außenpolitische Journal, Nr. 140, pp.24–28.
  27. “Waijiaobu fubuzhang Zhang Ming zai “di san jie Beijiquan luntan dahui” Zhongguo guobie zhuanti huiyi shang de zhuzhi fayan” (2015), available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/zyjh_665391/t1306858.shtml (accessed 04 October 2018).
  28. “Wang Yi buzhang zai di san jie Beijiquan luntan dahui kaimushi shang de shipin zhici” (2015), available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/wjbz_663308/2461_663310/t1306... (accessed 02 October 2018).
  29. Wegge Njord (2014), “China in the Arctic: Interests, Actions and Challenges”, Nordit, №32, pp. 83–98.
  30. “Xi Jinping zai Zhonggong zhongyang zhengzhiju di ba ci jiti xuexi shi qiangdiao” (2013), Renmin wang, available at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2013/0731/c1024-22399478.html (accessed 19 October 2018).
  31. Guojia fazhan gaigewei Guojia haiyangju guanyu yinfa “Yidai yilu” jianshe haishang hezuo shexiang (2017), available at: http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/gzdt/201711/t20171116_867175.html (accessed 29 October 2018).
  32. “Zhongguo de beiji zhengce” baipishu quanwen (2018), available at: http://www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/32832/Document/1618203/1618203.htm (accessed 22 October 2018).
  33. “Zhong-Bing beiji kexue kaocha zhan zhengshi yunxing”, Xinhua wang (2018), available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/tech/2018-10/18/c_1123579959.htm (accessed 28 October 2018).
  34. “Zhongguo-Beiou beiji yanjiu zhongxin chengli”, Zhongguo haiyang baoxun (2013), available at: http://www.soa.gov.cn/xw/hyyw_90/2013nhyyw/201312/t20131212_28738.html (accessed 20 October 2018).
  35. Gudev P. А. (2018), “Arkticheskiye ambitsii Podnebesnoy”, available at: https://www.globalaffairs.ru/global-processes/Arkticheskie-ambitcii-Podn... (accessed 24 October 2018).
  36. Zhuravel V. P. (2016), “Kytay, Respublika Koreya, Yaponiya v Arktike: politika, ekonomika, bezopasnost”, Arktika i sever, № 24, ss.112–144.
  37. Sun Xiuwen (2017), “Problemy i perspektivy osvoyeniya Severnogo morskogo puti v kontekste realizatsii initsiativy “Poyas i put” ”, Problemy Dalnego Vostoka, № 6, ss. 5–15.