КИТАЙСЬКІ ДЕБАТИ 1990-Х РОКІВ ПРО РАДЯНСЬКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛІЗМ ТА КОНЦЕПЦІЮ КИТАЙСЬКОЇ НАЦІЇ

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  Лі Цзє

Анотація

Розпад Радянського Союзу в 1991 році значно вплинув на національну політику Китаю. У 1990-х роках китайські вчені детально розглянули внутрішні проблеми радянської федеративної системи, які вважалися одними з основних чинників, що спровокували розпад. Вони рішуче доводили, що федералізм не підходить для Китаю, обговорювали, як послабити його вплив на країну в майбутньому.До того ж концепція zhonghua minzu (Китайської нації), придумана китайським антропологом Фей Сяотун в 1988 році, також була введена в китайські дебати 1990-х років. Китайські вчені стверджували, що тоді як радянський стиль федералізму сприяв ослабленню національної згуртованості, поняття китайської нації може дати новий імпульс для зміцнення китайської загальної національної ідентичності та підтримання державної єдності всупереч негативним наслідкам розпаду радянської імперії. Китайські дискусії 1990-х років про радянську федеральну систему і її наслідки можна звести до таких пунктів: федералізм може пробудити і посилити етнічну національну ідентичність, що становить небезпеку для державної єдності; федералізм – продукт західної демократії, який вимагає певного поділу влади з місцевими регіонами, що може послабити центральний контроль; федеративна конструкція несумісна з китайською традицією державного верховенства і великого об’єднання; урок краху радянської федеральної системи для Китаю полягає в тому, що тільки сильна центральна влада, така як Комуністична партія Китаю (КПК), може мати здатність підтримувати державну єдність і суверенітет. До того ж китайські дебати про концепцію китайської нації були не тільки про те, як зміцнити національну згуртованість на тлі негативного прецеденту радянського розпаду. За дебатами послідували деякі санкціоновані КПК державні маневри в 1990-х роках, такі як просування і уніфікація використання мандаринської мови в Китаї і посилення патріотичного виховання, зміцнюючи національну ідентичність китайців серед різних етнічних груп. До того ж мета цих наукових праць і офіційних ініціатив полягала в тому, щоб змусити китайський народ усвідомити, що соціалістичний шлях і однопартійне правління є спільною долею країни, тільки вони можуть створити і забезпечити національну згуртованість. Вони зробили комуністичний режим представником національних інтересів, чим виправдали його диктатуру в Китаї. У статті не тільки проаналізовано китайське посмертне дослідження радянської національної політики, а й вивчено взаємодію наукових праць і прийняття політичних рішень із питань національності в Китаї, а також дана відповідь на питання, чому Китай навчився на радянському досвіді і як він змінив свою національну політику, щоб адаптуватися до посткомуністичного світу.

Як цитувати

Цзє, Л. (2021). КИТАЙСЬКІ ДЕБАТИ 1990-Х РОКІВ ПРО РАДЯНСЬКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛІЗМ ТА КОНЦЕПЦІЮ КИТАЙСЬКОЇ НАЦІЇ. Китаєзнавчі дослідження, (3), 60-82. https://doi.org/10.51198/chinesest2021.03.060
Переглядів статті: 21 | Завантажень PDF: 16

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Ключові слова

Китай, Радянський Союз, федералізм, Китайська нація, комунізм, національності, етнічні меншини, автономність, незалежність

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